Catholics have always affirmed that all seven sacraments are found within the pages of the Bible.
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The Catechism of the Catholic Church affirms, “Christ instituted the sacraments of the new law. There are seven: Baptism, Confirmation (or Chrismation), the Eucharist, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders and Matrimony. The seven sacraments touch all the stages and all the important moments of Christian life: they give birth and increase, healing and mission to the Christian’s life of faith. There is thus a certain resemblance between the stages of natural life and the stages of the spiritual life” (CCC 1210).
The Church has never wavered in its belief that the seven sacraments are not something invented by popes and bishops, but are an authentic teaching handed down to his apostles by Jesus Christ.
Here is a brief slideshow that highlights various passages from the Bible that refer to each of the seven sacraments.
The Roman use of “sacramentum” will bring you deeper into the sacraments