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Also known as "crux ordinaria," the Latin Cross represents the crucifixion of Christ. It is the most commonly used cross in Christianity, alongside the Greek cross.
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The Greek cross, with arms of equal length, as in a "plus" sign, has been commonly used since the 4th century.
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The anchored cross, also known as St. Clement's cross, is an early Christian symbol. It refers to the way the saint was martyred (he was drowned with an anchor tied to his neck by order of the emperor Trajan) but it is also a symbol of the faith Christians are "anchored" to.
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An inverted Latin cross is referred to as "St. Peter's cross." When martyred, the Apostle said he was not worthy of dying the same death as Jesus. He was then crucified head down, according to some traditional sources (including Origen and Eusebius of Cesarea).
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Though not a cross per se, the Chi-Rho (or Xi-Rho) monogram, also known as "Christ's Monogram," is one of the earliest Christograms. It is formed by superimposing the first two letters—xi and rho —of the Greek word ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Christ) in such a way that the vertical stroke of the rho intersects the center of the xi.
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Similar to a Greek cross but with abundant, detailed decoration, the Coptic cross is used by both Coptic Catholics and the Coptic Church of Alexandria, Egypt.
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The cross of the Armenian Apostolic Church is also known as "the blooming cross," because its arms end in branches of trefoil buds. Cross-stones, or khachkars, are carved stone steles with the cross surrounded by ornate decoration.
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The papal cross marks the authority of the pope. Its three crossbars echo the shape of the traditional papal tiara. An episcopal cross, proper to a bishop, has only two crossbars.
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The Jerusalem Cross, consisting of five Greek crosses, is said to represent either the five wounds of Christ or Christ and the four Gospels.
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The cross of Santiago (St. James) is a cross with flourished arms, often surmounting a scallop shell. It was the emblem of the 12th-century Spanish military Order of Santiago, named after St. James the Greater. The scallop shell, found on beaches near the shrine of Santiago de Compostela, is both a pilgrim badge and a symbol of Baptism.
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