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S.T.L.

Often when a priest pursues advanced studies in theology he obtains an S.T.L. degree, which stands for Sacrae Theologiae Licentiatus ("Licentiate of Sacred Theology").
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O.P.

A member of the Dominican order will often sign their name with the abbreviation O.P., Ordo Praedicatorum ("Order of Preachers").
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O.C.D.

Discalced Carmelites typically put O.C.D. at the end of their name, meaning Ordo Carmelitarum Discalceatorum ("Order of Discalced Carmelites").
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P.P.

Historically popes would add P.P. after their signature, which means Papa ("Pope"); Pontificum ("Of the popes"). At its basic level it's an abbreviation for the word "pope."
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EP.

At times a bishop will append their name with the abbreviation EP., which refers to the word Episcopus ("Bishop").
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S.T.D.

Another degree that priests can earn for additional studies in theology is the S.T.D., Sacred Theologiae Doctor ("Doctor of Sacred Theology").
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M.C.

Any member of Mother Teresa's order can add M.C. to their name, meaning "Missionary of Charity."
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J.C.D.

A small number of priests, though there are usually a couple in each diocese, will study canon law and receive the title of Juris Canonici Doctor ("Doctor of Canon Law").
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S.J.

A Jesuit will typically sign his name with S.J., which stands for Societas Jesu ("Society of Jesus").
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O.F.M.

Franciscans are a large religious family and have many abbreviations. One of the most common is O.F.M., Ordo Fratrum Minorum (“Order of Lesser Brothers” or "Order of Friars Minor").
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O.S.B.

The order founded by St. Benedict (Benedictines) sign their name with O.S.B., Ordo Sancti Benedicti ("Order of St. Benedict").
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M.Div.

Most priests will receive a "Masters of Divinity" degree and some will put M.Div. at the end of their name to signify that achievement.