The first Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in 586 BC. When Jewish exile groups returned from Babylon they began rebuilding it -- at first a modest structure. However, according to Wikipedia, during the reign of Herod the Great, the Second Temple was completely refurbished, and the original structure was totally overhauled into "large and magnificent edifices." Herod began his work with a massive expansion of the Temple Mount.
Unfortunately, the temple would be destroyed by the Romans in AD 70. All that remains today is the Western Wall, which is venerated by Jews from all over the world.