An early planning map of lower Manhattan circa 1790. You can see how the city was concentrated on the southern tip at the time. Some expansion northward had occurred by 1817, but the real push came at the turn of the century, when the city's population swelled to over 2 million.
A very rare undated photo of the Sisters of Charity of New York in one of the larger spaces at the newly opened New York Foundling Hospital in Chelsea.
"A foundling brought in by the police." A rather common occurrence -- a police officer bring a child found on the streets back to the station, to be placed at an orphanage.
A typical note that would be left with a child who was brought to the Sisters of Charity for care.
"Scenes from Mulberry Street." An undated photo by Jacob Riis showing the daily life on Mulberry Street.
"New York Foundling Asylum, Sister Irene and her flock." A classic Jacob Riis photo from inside the NY Foundling Hospital, around 1872.
"Street Arabs in sleeping quarters." One of Jacob Riis's most iconic images of the struggles that street children faced in the late 1800s.
"Organized Charity. [Children Resting in Outside Infirmary]" Location uncertain, but children during that time period suffered from a variety of illness that stemmed from the squalid conditions in which they were raised.
Another rare photo from the nursery at the New York Foundling Hospital.
"Prayer time in the nursery." - Jacob Riis
"Celebrating the feast of St. Rocco in Bandit's Roost, Mulberry Bend -- May 23, 1895"