The Celestial Virgin and Child

A view of the celestial heaven, complete with God the Father, Mary, Jesus, and all the angels and saints. This manuscript was illuminated by a 15th-century French artist known as the Spitz Master.


It is unknown who painting this watercolor study of comets, which appears in a 15th-century German manuscript.

The Fall of the Rebel Angels

A French depiction of the battle between the righteous and the fallen angels. Note the fallen angels are being driven out of the celestil body (heaven) into what appears to be a hound's mouth, signifying hell.

The Creation of the World

From the Getty's description: "Wearing a sweeping pink and gray robe, God creates the elements of the world with a touch of his finger. The new life inside the initial spills chaotically into the left margin of the page. The text and music shown here are celebrating the 'nurturing creator of the stars.'"

The Woman Clothed with the Sun

Getty's description: "From the margins on the right of the page, Saint John the Evangelist sees the vision of 'a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars,' recorded in chapter twelve of the Apocalypse. From beneath her robe she produces a child, whom she passes to an angel to save him from the dragon behind her. The image's frame cuts off the figure of God, leaving only his feet visible."

The Annunciation to the Shepherds

A medieval view of the Annunciation to the Shepherds. This beautiful piece of art was made by the French artist Georges Trubert in the late 15th century. See how the angel remains among the celestial bodies, referring to the medieval understanding of heaven existing in the stars.

Constellation Diagrams

This unattributed drawing of constellations is from 13th-century England. The artist made a point of marking the star positions on the diagrams, so that those studying could better see how the constellation comes together.

Astronomical Table with Volvelle

A look at the timepiece called a volvelle. The volvelle was used to calculate the positions of the sun, moon, and stars of the Zodiac throughout the year. By turning the dial, which was made from layered parchment, one could mathematically determine the phases of the moon, the number of days in each month, and the sign that governs each hour of the day.